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Year : 2006  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 7-19

Meningococcal disease: History, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevention


1 Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College New Delhi-110 002, India
2 Microbiology Division, National Institute of Communicable Diseases, New Delhi-110 002, India

Correspondence Address:
P Bhalla
Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College New Delhi-110 002
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.19888

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Meningoccocal disease has repeatedly caused outbreaks worldwide. There has been sudden surge of cases of meningococcemia and meningococcal meningitis in early 2005 in Delhi, India and neighboring states of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. As of June 17, 2005, 429 probable cases of meningococcal disease have been reported in Delhi out of which 128 cases have revealed microbiological evidence of Neisseria meningitidis . It is possible that the number of cases was in excess of the numbers notified. During this episode drug susceptibility testing by MIC method (E-test) using break points recently recommended by NCCLS/CLSI, revealed that all isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, rifampicin and ceftriaxone. As regards to ciprofloxacin, about two third of the isolates tested were found to be 'non-susceptible' (MIC =0.03g/mL- 0.190g/mL). All the isolates were found resistant to cotrimoxazole (MIC> 16g/mL). Repeated outbreaks, decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, which is commonly used for chemoprophylaxis of meningococcal disease, highlights the need for a constant surveillance system. Present review deals with various aspects of Neisseria meningitidis and meningococcal disease in view of recent episode.






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2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

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